The Sage Observer

The Sage Observer

June 25, 2021
Doubt is an uncomfortable condition, but certainty is a ridiculous one.

Deconstructing the 1918 “Spanish Flu” Pandemic – Part 1: The CDC’s Pathetic Attempt to “Reconstruct” the Influenza Virus

influenza
People waiting in line to enter a store in San Francisco during the 1918 pandemic. (Credit: Hamilton Henry Dobbin)

In this scathing indictment of the outrageously corrupt Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), I will methodically dismantle the highly dubious official narrative of the deadly influenza pandemic of 1918-20. Since the 1918 “Spanish Flu” pandemic helped set the stage for the modern-day medical establishment, the process of dissecting it can yield valuable insights that can be used to unravel the fraudulent official narrative of COVID-19 that is being peddled today.

It turns out that “Spanish Flu” is a complete misnomer, as this particular outbreak was neither Spanish in origin, nor was it a “contagious” flu. Spain was one of the few major European countries to remain neutral during World War I. The Spanish media, unlike that of Allied and Central Powers nations, was free and uncensored. Therefore, they didn’t suppress news of the pandemic, unlike other countries. Other countries with a media blackout could only get detailed, in-depth coverage of the pandemic from Spanish news sources. Hence, many people incorrectly assumed the illness was specific to Spain, and it was dubbed the “Spanish Flu”—much to Spain’s chagrin.

Numerous articles and studies indicate that there is “uncertainty” around the 1918 pandemic, and researchers are still “unsure” as to the exact “origin” of the supposed outbreak. According to Sino Biological, the cause of the pandemic was a “vicious Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1.” The symptoms were extremely severe and unusual, including “massive hemorrhages and edema in the lung.” The disease was initially misdiagnosed as dengue, cholera, or typhoid. Interestingly, the majority of deaths were caused by a supposed secondary infection of bacterial pneumonia. This was reported by the current director of the NIH—Anthony Fauci—along with co-researchers, in papers written as early as 2008.

Introduction to the Influenza Virus

Influenza A virus structure. (Credit: Hi Eun Jung and Heung Kyu Lee)

Sino Biological indicates that influenza viruses are viral infections of the “respiratory and pulmonary system generally accompanied by fever.” A CDC article published in 2006, entitled “1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics,” claims that an estimated 500 million people, or roughly one-third of the world’s population, were “infected” by the supposed virus. The total deaths were estimated to be anywhere from 50 to 100 million. According to the CDC:

“All influenza A pandemics since that time, and indeed almost all cases of influenza A worldwide (excepting human infections from avian viruses such as H5N1 and H7N7) have been caused by descendants of the 1918 virus, including ‘drifted’ H1N1 viruses and reassorted H2N2 and H3N2 viruses.”

Note that since viruses are not alive, they cannot possibly have descendants. The article continues:

“Subsequent research indicates that descendants of the 1918 virus still persists enzootically in pigs. They probably also circulated continuously in humans, undergoing gradual antigenic drift and causing annual epidemics, until the 1950s. With the appearance of a new H2N2 pandemic strain in 1957 (‘Asian flu’), the direct H1N1 viral descendants of the 1918 pandemic strain disappeared from human circulation entirely, although the related lineage persisted enzootically in pigs. But in 1977, human H1N1 viruses suddenly ‘reemerged’ from a laboratory freezer (9). They continue to circulate endemically and epidemically.”

According to the CDC, the flu can spread via direct contact between pigs and people. (Credit: CDC)

No proof is given for the far-fetched claim that “descendants” of the 1918 virus still persist “enzootically” in pigs. There cannot possibly be such a thing as “cross-species transmission,” e.g., from animals to humans, simply because animal RNA/DNA is incompatible with human RNA/DNA. Furthermore, no explanation is given for how human H1N1 viruses suddenly “reemerged” from a laboratory freezer in 1977, aside from a link to this article—which requires paid access. Nevertheless, according to the World Health Organization (WHO):

“Seasonal influenza is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, cough (usually dry), headache, muscle and joint pain, severe malaise (feeling unwell), sore throat and a runny nose.”

The “seasonal” variety of influenza can be potentially fatal for people who are considered “high risk.” This includes children under 5, adults over 65, pregnant women, individuals with chronic medical conditions, and individuals with immunosuppressive conditions. However, the 1918 pandemic affected a totally different demographic than “seasonal” influenza. The CDC article says, “Overall, nearly half of the influenza-related deaths in the 1918 pandemic were in young adults 20–40 years of age, a phenomenon unique to that pandemic year.” This is very peculiar since the article also claims that the 1918 illness was just a variation of ordinary, “seasonal” influenza. Once again, since viruses are not alive, it is preposterous for the CDC to claim that any virus has “descendants.”

A further examination of the literature surrounding this pandemic reveals many peculiar inconsistencies, inconsistent narratives, and doublethink. This is compounded by the fact that death records were not consistently archived and saved in many parts of the world at that time. Regardless, there is more than enough available information to form logical conclusions about the true nature of this pandemic, as well as to expose the ridiculous lies and needlessly complicated layers of scientific garbage that the CDC, among others, have used to hide the truth.

The CDC’s Influenza Research

Emergency hospital at Camp Funston, located in Fort Riley, Kansas, during the 1918 pandemic. (Credit: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology/National Museum of Health and Medicine)

The CDC, at best, can be described as an organization that is horrifically inept at performing its intended function, and at worst, a corrupt and heinous instrument of death—in stark contrast to the excessively try-hard and “benevolent” purpose embedded within its ridiculous name. The agency has dedicated a number of pages on its website toward describing the 1918 influenza pandemic. It states that the pandemic was “caused by an H1N1 virus with genes of avian origin.”

Oddly enough, in the very same paragraph, the CDC admits, “Although there is not universal consensus regarding where the virus originated, it spread worldwide during 1918-1919.” This is not a particularly confident statement. Nevertheless, it appears that the virus was first identified in military personnel during the spring of 1918. There were an estimated 675,000 deaths in the United States. Per the CDC:

“The high mortality in healthy people, including those in the 20-40 year age group, was a unique feature of this pandemic.”

The CDC inexplicably claims, “While the 1918 H1N1 virus has been synthesized and evaluated, the properties that made it so devastating are not well understood.” That statement alone sounds patently absurd—no wonder flu vaccines are such an atrocious failure overall. Regardless, if the virus has been “synthesized and evaluated,” shouldn’t the properties that made it so “devastating” already be well understood? This is grossly incompetent for such a lavishly funded institution. What exactly does the CDC mean by the words “synthesized” and “evaluated”?

There are supposedly four different kinds of influenza viruses classified as types A, B, C, and D. According to the CDC, “Influenza A viruses are the only influenza viruses known to cause flu pandemics, i.e., global epidemics of flu disease,” something that sounds relatively arbitrary. Nevertheless, the CDC continues, “A pandemic can occur when a new and very different influenza A virus emerges that both infects people and has the ability to spread efficiently between people.” The corrupt organization indicates that 131 “subtypes” of the influenza virus exist. It also follows an internationally accepted virus naming convention that was accepted by the WHO following a major revision in 1979.

Influenza A virus diagram. (Credit: CDC)

Just from reading the CDC’s page on influenza viruses, it seems as if the organization finds itself caught in a massive, gruesome, and genocidal lie. It’s remarkable that there isn’t a single actual image of an influenza virus on this particular site—only colorful diagrams. It appears as though the CDC has been slapping layer upon layer of scientific obscurity onto the initial lie until it becomes so layered with abstraction and absurd complexity that the average person is simply unable to grasp it.

Influenza A viruses are supposedly divided into subtypes based on two proteins that exist on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 18 different HA subtypes and 11 different NA subtypes. The two subtypes can be further broken down into different genetic “clades” and “sub-clades.”

I cannot emphasize enough just how recklessly stupid and dangerous it is to blindly leave your health and safety in the hands of these so-called “experts,” if for no other reason than the fact that human error is always a very real possibility in any given man-made situation. Forget about “conspiracy theories.” Now, let me reiterate that: It is RECKLESSLY STUPID to blindly leave your health and safety in the hands of these so-called medical “experts” for the sole reason of human error alone. Don’t forget that medical error is the third-leading cause of death in the United States annually, according to The BMJ. These people are not gods—not by a long shot.

Causes of death in the US in 2013. (Credit: BMJ)

When you add pervasive, filthy corruption to the mix, the entire mainstream medical establishment becomes a totally backward, arcane, grotesque, and medieval nightmare of epic proportions—one that you don’t even remotely want to think about wasting any time with, unless absolutely necessary.

The CDC indicates that its “studies of the 1918 influenza virus were begun in 2004 with the initiation of testing of viruses containing subsets of the eight genes of the 1918 virus.” For whatever reason, the agency waited all the way until 2005 to finally finish “discovering” and “reconstructing” the 1918 influenza virus. That’s over 85 years to fully characterize the supposed cause of a devastating pandemic that killed an estimated 50 million or more people worldwide.

The Excavation of 1918 Pandemic Victims

Johan Hultin excavating the remains of a 1918 influenza pandemic victim in Brevig Mission burial ground, Alaska. (Credit: CDC)

The CDC details the “discovery” and “reconstruction” of the 1918 influenza virus on its website. The organization states the following:

“The virus’ unique severity puzzled researchers for decades, and prompted several questions, such as ‘Why was the 1918 virus so deadly’, ‘Where did the virus originate from?’, and ‘What can the public health community learn from the 1918 virus to better prepare for and defend against future pandemics?’ These questions drove an expert group of researchers and virus hunters to search for the lost 1918 virus, sequence its genome, recreate the virus in a highly safe and regulated laboratory setting at CDC, and ultimately study its secrets to better prepare for future pandemics. For decades, the 1918 virus was lost to history, a relic of a time when the understanding of infectious pathogens and the tools to study them were still in their infancy.”

In 1951, a Swedish microbiologist named Johan Hultin attempted to excavate bodies of Inuit Natives buried at a tiny ocean-side village in Alaska. This village was supposedly ravaged by influenza in the fall of 1918. Hultin uncovered the body of a little girl and four additional bodies, managing to recover lung tissue from each. However, the CDC claims that “logistical and technological limitations of the time period would prove formidable.”

“Hultin attempted to inject the lung tissue into chicken eggs to get the virus to grow. It did not. In the end, perhaps unsurprisingly, Hultin was unable to retrieve the 1918 virus from this initial attempt.”

46 years later, in 1997, Hultin came across the work of Jeffery Taubenberger, a young molecular pathologist employed by the Armed Services Institute of Pathology in Washington, D.C. Taubenberger’s team had completed the “initial work to sequence part of the genome of the 1918 virus.” They purportedly extracted viral RNA from the lung tissue a 21-year-old male U.S. service member who had been stationed in Fort Jackson, South Carolina, in 1918. The group managed to sequence nine fragments of viral RNA from four of the eight gene segments of the virus. Taubenberger published the team’s work in the journal Science.

Apparently, upon seeing the article in Science, Hultin became “inspired” once again to try and recover the 1918 virus. I find that somewhat curious—where exactly was that “inspiration” during the 46 years since Hultin’s initial attempt? But I digress.

Dr. Jefferey Taubenberger and Dr. Ann Reid review a genetic sequence from the 1918 “Spanish Flu” virus. (Credit: National Museum of Health and Medicine Online Exhibit – MIS 377212)

Hultin reached out to Taubenberger and got his agreement to attempt another excavation at the same Alaskan village as before. This time, Hultin was able to unearth the body of an Inuit woman whose “lungs were perfectly frozen and preserved in the Alaskan permafrost.”

“Hultin removed them, placed them in preserving fluid, and later shipped them separately to Taubenberger and his fellow researchers, including Dr. Ann Reid, at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Ten days later, Hultin received a call from the scientists to confirm—to perhaps everyone’s collective astonishment—that positive 1918 virus genetic material had indeed been obtained from Lucy’s lung tissue.”

Hultin, Taubenberger, et al. described their work in a Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) paper published in 1999, entitled “Origin and evolution of the 1918 ‘Spanish’ influenza virus hemagglutinin gene.” The article claims:

“Pandemic influenza results when an influenza strain emerges with an HA protein to which few people have prior immunity (4). It is thought that the source of HA genes that are new to humans is the extensive pool of influenza viruses infecting wild birds. How new HA genes emerge and where they adapt from their characteristic avian form to a form that successfully spreads in humans are not understood perfectly.”

This statement alone calls into question everything reported in this study. Nevertheless, the researchers utilized autopsy cases of 78 victims from the lethal fall wave of influenza that occurred in 1918. However, they make an interesting admission in the “Materials and Methods” section of their report, claiming that the majority of individuals died of secondary acute bacterial pneumonia, which was the most common cause of death in the 1918 pandemic. Per the report, “most of the samples taken from these individuals were not analyzed further, because they were extremely unlikely to retain influenza virus.” No explanation is provided for why this was the case. The researchers did, however, select 13 samples “from patients who experienced acute influenza deaths after clinical courses of less than 1 week.”

“In addition to samples taken from patients with early bronchopneumonia, samples from patients with acute massive pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhage were also selected, reflecting the unusual histopathology observed in 1918 (13).”

Note that bronchopneumonia is most commonly associated with a bacterial lung infection, per Medical News Today. According to a 1958 report, acute pulmonary edema is associated with “a great variety of conditions,” including pneumonia and bronchopneumonia. Ultimately, however, it appears the researchers only ended up using only three bodies from which to extract the supposed hemagglutinin gene of the influenza A virus. Let’s take a look at the report’s description of each of these bodies. First patient:

“During the autopsy, it was noted that he had a fatal secondary lobar bacterial pneumonia in his left lung, whereas the right lung showed only focal acute bronchiolitis and alveolitis, indicative of primary influenza pneumonia. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded right lung tissue was positive for influenza RNA [A/South Carolina/1/18 (H1N1)] as reported (2).”

Second patient:

“The second patient was a 30-year-old male stationed at Camp Upton, NY…The autopsy showed massive bilateral pulmonary edema and focal acute bronchopneumonia. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissue was positive for influenza RNA. RNA templates larger than 150 nucleotides could not be amplified in these two cases.”

Third patient:

“One of the victims, an Inuit female (age unknown) was influenza RNA positive [A/Brevig Mission/1/18 (H1N1)]. In this case, RNA templates greater than 120 nucleotides could not be amplified.”

The researchers used a hocus-pocus technique known as RT-PCR to amplify (copy) RNA templates. However, they were unable to amplify RNA templates larger than 150 nucleotides for the first two patients, and larger than 120 nucleotides for the third patient. Very poor. According to the CDC, the influenza A virus’ genome contains eight gene segments that total in length to ~13,500 nucleotides. This is a far cry from the short RNA templates that were amplified, which calls into question the efficacy of RT-PCR in general. Here is another key passage from the report:

“Analysis of the 1918 HA sequence permits alternative interpretations as to its origin. The 1918 sequences are phylogenetically distinct from current avian strains.”

This snippet is so idiotic that it basically negates the entire study. This pretty much tells me all I need to know about the sloppy, patchwork “scientific” techniques used by these researchers. And no, I don’t need to have a PhD in Virology in order to utilize some very basic logic and common sense here. I won’t go into the rest of this shaky and embarrassing paper in detail, but feel free to read through it yourself in order to appreciate just how atrocious the junk science truly is. Nevertheless, let’s take a brief look at how polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests work in general. The description of how PCR works is likely to make your head spin. Again, it doesn’t take a genius to realize how ridiculous, stupid, and inappropriate this technique is.

Kary Mullis, the creator of PCR, at a TED talk. (Credit: Erik Charlton)

According to Kary B. Mullis, the creator of the PCR test kit himself, “PCR cannot be totally and should never be used as a tool in ‘the diagnosis of infectious diseases.'” Regardless, let’s continue with the CDC’s description of its “reconstruction” of this “virus,” which culminates with a 2005 paper published in the journal Science. We can clearly see the deceptiveness of this deeply flawed research article simply by examining some key passages.

“With the recent availability of the complete 1918 influenza virus coding sequence, we used reverse genetics to generate an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus to study the properties associated with its extraordinary virulence. Because the 1918 5′ and 3′ noncoding regions have not been sequenced, the genes were constructed such that they had the noncoding regions corresponding to the closely related influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus.”

Note that the preceding statement completely invalidates the entire study, since it is clear that the researchers tried to fill in a missing gap here and simply glossed over this in their final results. An esoteric process called “plasmid-based reverse genetics” was used to generate an influenza virus that supposedly matches the one that caused the 1918 outbreak. A genetic analysis textbook describes this process as follows: “Reverse genetics starts from a protein or DNA for which there is no genetic information and then works backward to make a mutant gene, ending up with a mutant phenotype.”

The Massive Flaws in the CDC’s Research

Pathologic findings from a patient with “confirmed” influenza A infection. (Credit: CDC)

Continuing with the “reconstruction” study, it is very clear that the researchers didn’t isolate or extract any wholly intact virus, let alone in large amounts, from any of the preserved lung tissue that was analyzed. This is clear from one of the very first statements in the report:

“In the present study, we generated a virus containing the complete coding sequences of the eight viral gene segments from the 1918 virus in an effort to understand the molecular basis of virulence of this pandemic virus.”

Instead, they relied on the gimmick of using genomic RNA from different patients, along with the process of “plasmid-based reverse genetics,” to merge the results together and come up with a sloppy concoction that they claim to be identical to the 1918 influenza virus. Then, proceed to infect mice with the virus in order to “validate” their results, which is insanely idiotic on a very basic and intuitive level.

The researchers are simply trying way too hard to force-feed a sloppily patched together, regenerated “virus” that supposedly matches the “virus” that afflicted a handful of patients during the 1918-20 pandemic. There are so many holes in this study that it’s comical.

The authors themselves admit, after “reconstructing” the supposed virus: “The resulting strains were demonstrated to cause mortality in mice only at high infection doses (12, 13); however, the virulence of the complete 1918 virus has not been evaluated.” Horrendous. This supposedly “groundbreaking” study which the pathetic CDC tries to pass off as definitive proof of “reconstructing” the 1918 virus is purely junk science meandering through Frankenstein-style experiments wrapped up in a silly, never-ending labyrinth of viral terminology. Sick.

Furthermore, there is not a single electron micrograph of their patchwork “reconstructed” virus; all they provide are some photomicrographs of “hematoxylin and eosin-stained lung sections” from the mice that they subsequently infected with the “reconstructed” virus. I can assure you that this “research” study put forth by the CDC offers absolutely zero proof of any viral cause. The fact that the CDC tries to pass this garbage off as “science” and official “evidence” of an infectious virus causing the 1918 pandemic is atrociously dishonest and sinister. This is egregiously poor, disgusting, and unprofessional work on the part of the CDC.

A family with its cat during the 1918 pandemic. (Credit: Public domain)

This is actually so ridiculously intuitive and basic that it’s amazing how so many “well educated” types seem to get lost in the rabbit hole of unproven pseudoscience, merely because it contains layers upon layers of abstract complexity that seemingly sounds “smart.” Nevertheless, it’s more than just the CDC’s complete inability to simply demonstrate the entire intact virus itself in any supposedly infected individual without never-ending layers of excessively complicated abstractions (i.e., bullshit). It’s also the fact that pneumococcal bacterium was clearly present in the lungs of the vast majority of autopsied patients—caused by excessive mask-wearing, perhaps? Regardless, this strongly correlates with the commonly held opinion at the time of bacteria being the primary “causal” agent of influenza.

There are multiple studies indicating that bacterial pneumonia was the primary cause of death during the 1918 influenza pandemic. However, they are all tainted with asinine claims of a “superinfection” (or similar such terminology). A superinfection is basically when a second infection is superimposed onto a previous one. In the context of influenza fatalities, studies generally claim that a supposed mild case of influenza is usually accompanied by “secondary” bacterial pneumonia, which ends up being the actual killer.

This particular point is very noteworthy. It’s tempting to take the position that the virus was nonexistent and that an infectious bacterium was the primary cause. After all, viruses had not even been “isolated” until the 1930s. However, this goes deeper than most people may think, and the so-called “secondary” bacterial infection is nothing but a smokescreen for a much bigger deception than just the lack of an infectious virus.

A 2015 paper from the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) details the mechanisms of influenza and bacterial superinfection: “Often, the worst disease outcomes are associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia caused primarily by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumonia.”

Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (Credit: NIAID)

A CIDRAP article discusses how experts in 1918 almost unanimously agreed that deaths were usually a result of “severe secondary pneumonia caused by well-known bacterial ‘pneumopathogens’ that colonized the upper respiratory tract.” Additionally, a CDC paper from 2008 describes the primary role of bacterial pneumonia during the 1918 outbreak.

“We have identified epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the 1918–19 pandemic that are not readily consistent with the view that most deaths were caused by the direct effects of an inherently hypervirulent virus and were clinically expressed as rapidly progressing, ultimately fatal pneumonitis.”

The authors go on to admit that the bacteria most often recovered from 1918 influenza victims “were common colonizers of the upper respiratory tracts of healthy persons.” These bacteria are known to cause flu-like symptoms. The fact that these bacteria commonly colonized the upper respiratory tracts of healthy persons is particularly noteworthy. Keep this in mind. Oddly enough, the authors also describe how “affected hosts became ‘cloud adults’ who increased the aerosolization of colonizing strains of bacteria, particularly pneumococci, hemolytic streptococci, H. influenzae, and S. aureus (39).”

“Persons with active infections were aerosolizing the bacteria that colonized their noses and throats, while others—often, in the same ‘breathing spaces’—were profoundly susceptible to invasion of and rapid spread through their lungs by their own or others’ colonizing bacteria.”

The NIH itself also published an article entitled “Bacterial Pneumonia Caused Most Deaths in 1918 Influenza Pandemic.” Here is another one from The Journal of Infectious Diseases. This one is particularly notable as one of its authors is none other than Dr. Anthony S. Fauci himself. Fauci and his colleagues admit:

“The majority of deaths in the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic likely resulted directly from secondary bacterial pneumonia caused by common upper respiratory–tract bacteria.”

Over 9000 autopsies were examined, and in 92.7% of these, bacterial pneumonia was the killer. The exact number is likely even higher. The researchers state: “there were no negative (bacterial) lung culture results.” Once again, they try to pass the bacteria off as a “secondary” infection that was superimposed on top of the first, i.e., the supposed virus. The claim is that it was a bacterial-viral “co-infection” that combined to create a “superinfection.” It is interesting that in the vast majority of deaths, researchers claim this “co-infection.” But how is it that this exact “co-infection” swept across the world from 1918-20, infecting as many as 500 million people or more?

In other words, why was it that this particular bacterial pneumonia ALWAYS seemed to be paired with the viral influenza in the vast majority of cases? Why were researchers confident in this claim?

It’s simply because they know something that most people don’t.

References

  1. https://www.sinobiological.com/research/virus/1918-influenza-pandemic-spanish-flu
  2. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/bacterial-pneumonia-caused-most-deaths-1918-influenza-pandemic
  3. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/1/05-0979_article
  4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/82293/
  5. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html?web=1&wdLOR=cA8882F2C-E9DA-974D-98C5-EC57A83474F1
  6. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/vaccines-work/effectiveness-studies.htm
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2395936/pdf/bullwho00427-0070.pdf
  8. https://www.bmj.com/content/353/bmj.i2139
  9. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/1918flupandemic.htm?web=1&wdLOR=c121E1874-A5DA-684B-B573-BA0A93AD1EE9
  10. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/reconstruction-1918-virus.html
  11. https://www.pnas.org/content/96/4/1651
  12. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323167
  13. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/01.CIR.13.1.113
  14. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/professionals/genetic-characterization.htm?web=1&wdLOR=c4AD9B47C-8922-D048-A0BE-CC9E3CE67FAE
  15. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Book%3A_Microbiology_(Boundless)/7%3A_Microbial_Genetics/7.13%3A_Bioinformatics/7.13E%3A_Amplifying_DNA_-_The_Polymerase_Chain_Reaction
  16. https://www.eclassifie.com/2020/05/what-is-a-pcr-test-kit-by-kary-mullis/
  17. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/310/5745/77
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21843/
  19. https://iai.asm.org/content/83/10/3764
  20. https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2008/08/study-bacterial-pneumonia-was-main-killer-1918-flu-pandemic
  21. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/14/8/07-1313_article
  22. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/bacterial-pneumonia-caused-most-deaths-1918-influenza-pandemic
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Yash

Thank you so much for posting this again. I was halfway thru it on Twitter before it got taken down!

Zingara Zara

Amazing what you wrote here, can’t wait on the next parts! Thank you for the effort.

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